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Poaching for the illegal ivory trade is a threat in several range countries as well. [31] Human encroachment into natural areas where bush elephants occur or their increasing presence in adjacent areas has spurred research into methods of safely driving groups of elephants away from humans. Competition between bulls overrides their choice sometimes. [22] Elephants sometimes swim underwater and use their trunks as snorkels. The distinctive ears serve several functions, including their most obvious function forming a large surface to intercept distant or faint sounds. Less than a third of the population of female elephants will be in estrus at any given time and gestation period of an elephant is long, so it makes more evolutionary sense for a male to search for as many females as possible rather than stay with one group. The African elephant (Loxodonta) is a genus comprising two living elephant species, the African bush elephant (L. africana) and the smaller African forest elephant (L. cyclotis). 5. The African forest elephant was found to have a high degree of genetic diversity, perhaps reflecting periodic fragmentation of their habitat during the climatic changes in the Pleistocene. Dig into and choose from MomJunction’s treasure of 70,000+ baby names that are divided based on meaning, religion, origin, English alphabet, and gender. [31], Both African elephant species live in family units comprising several adult cows, their daughters and their subadult sons. [24] Fermentation of the food takes place in the hindgut, thus enabling large food intakes. Common Name African Bush Elephant Number Of Species 1 Location central and southern Africa Slogan Can drink up to 50 gallons a day Group Mammal. Male reproductive success is maximal in mid-adulthood and then begins to decline. African elephants have 24 teeth in total, six on each quadrant of the jaw. Functional loss of the trunk due to floppy trunk syndrome sometimes forces elephants to carry their trunks over their tusks and walk into deep water in order to drink. They use it for smelling, touching, feeding, drinking, dusting, sound production, loading, defending and attacking. During the first three years, male calves spend more time suckling and grow faster than female calves. To get home a baby elephant may or may not be an easy task, but to name them certainly can be a difficult job. Most were killed at night, and hunts occurred more often during waning moon nights than during bright moon nights. [38] Urinary testosterone increases during musth. [66], Researchers discovered that playing back the recorded sounds of African bees is an effective method to drive elephants away from settlements. In captivity, cows have an oestrous cycle lasting 14–15 weeks. In both sites, elephants aggregated during the wet season, whereas groups were smaller in the dry season. Males over the age of 25 compete strongly for females in estrus, and are more successful the larger and more aggressive they are. In the western African Kingdom of Dahomey (now part of Benin) the elephant was associated with the 19th century rulers of the Fon people, Guezo and his son Glele. [57] In the same park, lions killed eight elephants in October 2005 that were aged between one and 11 years, two of them older than eight years. They are composed of dentin and coated with a thin layer of cementum. Fossil remains of Loxodonta species have been excavated in Africa, dating to the Middle Pliocene. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear DNA of African bush and forest elephants, Asian elephant, woolly mammoth and American mastodon revealed that the African bush elephant and the African forest elephant form a sister group that genetically diverged at least 1.9 million years ago. [57] [28], The African forest elephant is smaller with male shoulder heights of up to 2.5 metres (8.2 ft). [67], China was the biggest market for poached ivory but announced that it would phase out the legal domestic manufacture and sale of ivory products in May 2015, and in September of that year, China and the U.S.A. "said they would enact a nearly complete ban on the import and export of ivory. Foetal gonads enlarge during the second half of pregnancy. [80], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. [61] Between 2005 and 2006, a total of 23.461 t (23.090 long tons; 25.861 short tons) ivory plus 91 unweighed tusks of African bush elephants were confiscated in 12 major consignments being shipped to Asia. Please find below many ways to say elephant in different languages. Calves exclusively suckle their mother's milk during the first three months. [53] Females choose to a point who they mate with, since they are the ones who try to get males to compete to guard them. African forest elephants occur only in Central Africa. [41] They have a very large and highly convoluted neocortex, a trait they share with humans, apes and some dolphin species. Generally speaking, elephants are broadly classified as either Loxodonta africana, if African, or Elephas maximus, if Asian. In the 1970s and 1980s, the price for ivory rose, and poaching for ivory increased in particular in Central African range countries where access to elephant habitats was facilitated by logging and petroleum mining industries. Savanna elephants are larger than forest elephants, and their tusks curve outwards. Chad is a major transit country for smuggling of ivory in West Africa. [70], In 1989, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora listed the African elephant on CITES Appendix I. The Natural History of the African Elephant. An anonymous author used the Latinized spelling Loxodonta in 1827. During the 10th century AD, the people of Igbo-Ukwu, near the Niger Delta, buried their leaders with elephant tusks.[80]. [61] African is well Known for its efforts to protect and conserve wildlife. [13], Gene flow between the two African elephant species was examined at 21 locations. According to Rowland Ward’s records, the heaviest tusk of an African elephant weighed an astonishing 226lb (102.5kg), the heaviest tusk of a woolly mammoth weighed 201lb (91.2kg) and the heaviest tusk of an Asiatic elephant weighed 161lb (73kg). Tusks are composed of dentin, which forms small diamond-shaped structures in the tusk's center that become larger at its periphery. Periods of musth are short and sporadic in young bulls up to 35 years old, lasting a few days to weeks. They grow to a size of 9.4 cm (3.7 in) wide by 31 cm (1.0 ft) long and are well worn by the age of 65 years. They grow to a size of 8.5 cm (3.3 in) wide by 22 cm (8.7 in) long and are worn by the age of 45–48 years. This is the same concept as a radar dish: the larger the dish, the more sound waves it can intercept. It contained 42,120 hanko stamps and 532 tusks of African bush elephants that originated in Southern Africa, centered in Zambia and neighboring countries. It develops six molars in each jaw quadrant that erupt at different ages and differ in size. Female African elephants are able to start reproducing at around 10 to 12 years of age,[50] and are in estrus for about 2 to 7 days. [59], In June 2002, a container packed with more than 6.5 t (6.4 long tons; 7.2 short tons) ivory was confiscated in Singapore. [8][9][2] Morphological and genetic analyses provided evidence for species-level differences between the African bush elephant and the African forest elephant. South Africa uses elephant tusks in their coat of arms to represent wisdom, strength, moderation and eternity. African bush elephants are the larger of the two and their tusks curve out, while their forest-dwelling cousins are darker and have tusks that are straighter and that point downward. The elephant’s large ears, which are much bigger than the Asian elephant’s ears, are there to serve many different purposes . In 1989, the Kenyan Wildlife Service burned a stockpile of tusks in protest against the ivory trade. [41], Young bulls in musth killed about 50 white rhinoceros in Pilanesberg National Park between 1992 and 1997. Chioma is a Nigerian, Igbo name meaning "Good God" or others might prefer "God is good".. Juah - Girl Name, Kru, Liberia. The tusks erupt when elephants are 1–3 years old and grow throughout life. [30] A 2020 study highlighted the importance of old bulls for the navigation and survival of herds and raised concerns over the removal of old bulls as "currently occur[ring] in both legal trophy hunting and illegal poaching". Aerial surveys in the late 1960's to early 1970's revealed an average group size of 6.3 individuals in Uganda's Rwenzori National Park and 28.8 individuals in Chambura Game Reserve. The longest known tusk of an African bush elephant measured 3.51 m (11.5 ft) and weighed 117 kg (258 lb). The divergence between the Asian elephant and the woolly mammoths is estimated 2.5 – 5.4 million years ago, which strongly supports their status as distinct species. [citation needed], Based on vegetation types that provide suitable habitat for African elephants, it was estimated that in the early 19th century a maximum of 26,913,000 African elephants might have been present from the Sahel in the north to the Highveld in the south. [47][49], African elephants are at their most fertile between the ages of 25 and 45. [10], Skulls of African bush elephant (left) and African forest elephant (right), Skull of a male African bush elephant on display at the Museum of Osteology, Oklahoma City, Skeleton of a female African bush elephant on display at the Museum of Osteology, Oklahoma City, The African bush elephant has grey skin with scanty hairs. [42][43] Similar incidents were recorded in Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park, where young bulls killed five black and 58 white rhinoceros between 1991 and 2001. [34] Salt licks visited by elephants in the Kalahari contain high concentrations of water-soluble sodium. While females are the most active members of African elephant groups, both male and female elephants are capable of distinguishing between hundreds of different low frequency infrasonic calls to communicate with and identify each other. The second molars start protruding at the age of about six months, grow to a size of 4 cm (1.6 in) wide by 7 cm (2.8 in) long and are lost by the age of 6–7 years. Between 1976 and 1980, about 830 t (820 long tons; 910 short tons) raw ivory was exported from Africa to Hong Kong and Japan, equivalent to tusks of about 222,000 African elephants. [14], The African bush elephant is the largest and heaviest land animal on Earth, with a maximum recorded shoulder height of an adult bull of 3.96 m (13.0 ft) and an estimated weight of up to 10.4 t (11.5 short tons). [36], Observations of adult African bush elephant bulls in Amboseli National Park revealed that they experience a swelling of the temporal glands and a secretion of fluid, the musth fluid, which flows down their cheeks. [59] [63] Mean weight of tusks at the age of 60 years is 109 kg (240 lb) in bulls, and 17.7 kg (39.0 lb) in cows. On 20 June 2019, the carcasses of 468 white-backed vultures, 17 white-headed vultures, 28 hooded vultures, 14 lappet-faced vultures and 10 cape vultures, altogether 537 endangered vultures, besides 2 tawny eagles, were found in northern Botswana. Secret - Girl Name " The 9 months "secret" is revealed".. Siahbonu – Boy or Girl "You didn’t do it to me" The strong do not need clubs.—Senegal . Males usually stay with a female and her herd for about a month before moving on in search of another mate. In 1989, only 608,000 African elephants were estimated to have survived. [35] Elephants drink 180–230 l (40–50 imp gal; 50–60 U.S. gal) of water daily, and seem to prefer sites where water and soil contains sodium. After the introduction of ten bulls, each up to 45 years old, the number of rhinos killed by elephants decreased considerably. The elephant's brain is similar to a human brain in terms of structure and complexity; the elephant's cortex has as many neurons as that of a human brain,[42] suggesting convergent evolution. "Living African elephants belong to two species: "Morphology of the deciduous tusk (tush) of the African elephant (, "Catalogue of the Mammals of Ethiopia. Unfortunately, the species is placed in harm's way due to the limited conservation areas provided in Africa. New research suggests that bulls maintain ecological knowledge for the herd, facilitating survival when searching for food and water, which also benefits the young bulls who associate with them. Short tactile hair grows on the trunk, which has two finger-like processes at the tip. In addition to being smaller, forest elephants are darker and their tusks are straighter and point downward. 42% of the total population lives in nine Southern African countries comprising 293,447 ± 16,682 individuals; Africa's largest population lives in Botswana with 131,626 ± 12,508 individuals. By the late 1970s, the population had declined to a herd in the Dawa River valley and one close to the Kenyan border. [44], Spermatogenesis starts when bulls are about 15 years old. Livraison 52 et 53", "Geographische Abarten des Afrikanischen Elefanten". [52] [28] [12] Poaching also increased in Kenya in those years. [69], In 1986, the African Elephant Database was initiated with the aim to monitor the status of African elephant populations. Ceballos, G.; Ehrlich, A. H.; Ehrlich, P. R. (2015). Loxodonta ( genus) The African elephant belongs to the genus Loxodonta and it comprises two extant species:-. Loxodonta is one of two extant genera of the family Elephantidae. Elephants are mammals of the family Elephantidae and the largest existing land animals. [34][35], Elephants use some vocalisations that are beyond the hearing range of humans,[36] to communicate across large distances. Community-based conservation programmes have been initiated in several range countries, which contributed to reduce human-elephant conflict and to increase local people's tolerance towards elephants. [2], In 2016, the global population was estimated at 415,428 ± 20,111 individuals distributed in a total area of 20,731,202 km2 (8,004,362 sq mi), of which 30% is protected. [65], Between 2003 and 2015, illegal killing of 14,606 African bush elephants was reported by rangers across 29 range countries. [73], Observations at Etosha National Park indicate that African bush elephant die due to anthrax foremost in November at the end of the dry season. [43], Elephants exhibit a wide variety of behaviors, including those associated with grief, learning, mimicry, art, play, a sense of humor, altruism, use of tools, compassion, cooperation,[44] self-awareness, memory and possibly language. [13] The African bush elephant's ears are pointed and triangular shaped. In this post, you'll learn about Swahili animal names for more than 100 african animals, including lion, giraffe, warthog, cheetah, and elephant. The largest recorded individual stood 3.96 metres (13.0 ft) at the shoulder, and is estimated to have weighed 10,400 kg (22,900 lb). Koshik, an Asian elephant, can mimic Korean words like choah (good), … Both are social herbivores with grey skin, but differ in the size and color of their tusks and in the shape and size of their ears and skulls. The African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana), also known as the African savanna elephant, is the largest living terrestrial animal, with bulls reaching a shoulder height of up to 3.96 m (13.0 ft) and a body mass of up to 10.4 t (11.5 short tons).[3]. Adults reach up to 24 feet in length and 13 feet in height and weigh up to 11 tons. [54], The maximum lifespan of the African bush elephant is between 70 and 75 years. As herbivores, they spend much of their days foraging and eating grass, leaves, bark, fruit, and a variety of foliage. 6. Since 2004, it has been assessed Vulnerable, as the global population was estimated to be increasing at a rate of 4% per year. [45] [58], The first continental elephant census was carried out in 1976. Access of poachers to unregulated black markets is facilitated by corruption and in periods of civil war in some elephant range countries. [26][27] The tallest recorded individual stood 4.21 m (13.8 ft) at the shoulder and weighed 8,000 kg (18,000 lb). The African bush elephant population in Chad's Zakouma National Park numbered 3,900 individuals in 2005. The elephants collapsed when the toxin impaired their motor functions and their legs became paralysed. [8] Their large ears help to reduce body heat; flapping them creates air currents and exposes the ears' inner sides where large blood vessels increase heat loss during hot weather. The gestation period of an elephant is 22 months and fertile females usually give birth every 3–6 years, so if they live to around 50 years of age, they may produce 7 offspring. [63], These killings were linked to confiscations of ivory and increased prices for ivory on the local black market. The family unit is led by a matriarch who at times also leads the kinship group. [55] Wild males begin breeding in their thirties when they are at a size and weight that is competitive with other adult males. Its large ears cover the whole shoulder,[11] and can grow as large as 2 m × 1.5 m (6.6 ft × 4.9 ft). The analysis revealed that several African bush elephants carried mitochondrial DNA of African forest elephants, indicating they hybridised in the savanna-forest transition zone in ancient times. The carrying capacity of remaining suitable habitats was estimated at 8,985,000 elephants at most by 1987. [51] [46] Where hunting pressure on adult elephants was high in the 1970s, cows gave birth once in 2.9 to 3.8 years. Successful hunts took place after dark when prides exceeded 27 lions and herds were smaller than five elephants. On average, males are about 3.20 m (10.5 ft) tall at the shoulder and weigh 6.0 t (6.6 short tons), while females are much smaller at about 2.60 m (8.53 ft) tall at the shoulder and 3.0 t (3.3 short tons) in weight. [74], In 2019, the export of wild African elephants to zoos around the world was banned, with an exception added by the EU to allow export in "exceptional cases where … it is considered that a transfer to ex-situ locations will provide demonstrable in-situ conservation benefits for African elephants". [33] [23], The dental formula of the African bush elephant is × 2 = 26. The African and Asian Elephants and mammoths belong to the order Proboscidea. However, females are not guarded in the early and late stages of estrus, which may permit mating by younger males not in musth. The Savannah elephant is the larger and darker than the bush elephant. [19], Both sexes have tusks, which erupt when they are 1–3 years old and grow throughout life. [30], African elephants are distributed in Sub-Saharan Africa, where they inhabit Sahelian scrubland and arid regions, tropical rainforests, mopane and miombo woodlands. By age 25, males are double the weight of females; however, both sexes continue to grow throughout their lives. Both are social herbivores with grey skin, but differ in the size and color of their tusks and in the shape and size of their ears and skulls. [9] In many cases, they kill the elephants instantly as they disturb a village or forage upon their crops. Interval between births was estimated at 3.9 to 4.7 years in Hwange National Park. Elephant. According to Schulte, in the 1990s, in North America, a few facilities allowed male interaction. [citation needed]. [12] During the dry season, the diet also includes leaves and bark. Genetic analysis of tusk samples showed that they originated from African bush elephants killed in Tanzania, Mozambique, Zambia, Kenya and Uganda. The population in the Tanzanian Selous Game Reserve, once the largest of any reserve in the world, dropped from 109,000 in 1976 to 13,000 in 2013. [26] Group size varies seasonally and between locations. Females are a bit smaller, reaching 10,000 pounds and 10 feet in height. [58], The African bush elephant is threatened foremost by habitat loss and fragmentation following conversion of natural habitat for livestock farming, plantations of non-timber crops and building of urban and industrial areas. The enamel plates of the molars are fewer in number than in Asian elephants. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, et F. Cuvier. The name refers to the lozenge-shaped enamel of their molar teeth. [2], Poachers target foremost elephant bulls for their tusks, which leads to a skewed sex ratio and affects the survival chances of a population. In 2012, The New York Times reported a large upsurge in ivory poaching, with about 70% of the product flowing to China. Wild cat. With a mass of just over 5 kg (11 lb), the elephant brain is larger than that of any other terrestrial animal. Loxodonte was proposed as the generic name for African elephants by Georges Cuvier in 1824. However, genetic research has found that subspecies exist in both groups and the scientific, or taxonomic, name is therefore not so simple to discern. A group of 80 elephants including eight bulls had gathered in the morning in a 150 m (490 ft) radius around the birth site. When six adult bulls were introduced into the park, the young bulls did not attack rhinos any more, indicating older bulls suppress musth and aggressiveness of younger bulls. This leads males to compete with each other to mate, which results in the females mating with older, healthier males. [61], When the international ivory trade reopened in 2006, the demand and price for ivory increased in Asia. [2] It is a social mammal, traveling in herds composed of cows and their offspring. Scientific name. Synonyms for elephant include mammoth, mastadon, pachyderm, tusker, Elephas maximus, Loxodonta africana, large mammal, mastodon, hippopotamus and rhinoceros. This article incorporates text from the ARKive fact-file "African elephant" under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License and the GFDL. If you don’t discover a name you like, please review the 5,508 names in The African Book of Names or try our African Name Generator. [3][15][16][17] Elephants attain their maximum stature when they complete the fusion of long-bone epiphyses, occurring in males around the age of 40 and females around the age of 25. In most cases, the killings of the African bush elephant have occurred near the outskirts of the protected areas. They are amongst the world's most intelligent species. [25], The African bush elephant is the largest terrestrial animal. In Samburu National Reserve, 41 bulls were illegally killed between 2008 and 2012, equivalent to 31% of the reserve's elephant population. Tree bark in particular contains a high level of calcium. The African elephant (Loxodonta) is a genus comprising two living elephant species, the African bush elephant (L. africana) and the smaller African forest elephant (L. cyclotis). She kept standing while giving birth. olifant noun. Find … [a] The animal is believed to evoke strength, royal legacy, and enduring memory as related by the proverbs: "There where the elephant passes in the forest, one knows" and "The animal steps on the ground, but the elephant steps down with strength. Afrikaans Translation. Twenty-two long observations showed that age and musth are extremely important factors; "… older males had markedly elevated paternity success compared with younger males, suggesting the possibility of sexual selection for longevity in this species." Anthrax killed over 100 elephants in Botswana in 2019. [79], In 1996, IUCN Red List assessors for the African bush elephant considered the species Endangered. The validity of Loxodonta has therefore been questioned. Between 1993 and 1996, lions successfully attacked 74 elephants; 26 were older than nine, and one was a bull of over 15 years. [47] The first scientific description of the African elephant was written in 1797 by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, who proposed the scientific name Elephas africanus. African Bush Elephant Physical Characteristics Colour. The population of African elephants in Southern Africa is large and expanding, with more than 300,000 within the region; Botswana has 200,000 and Zimbabwe 80,000. olifant. Baby elephants are cute and cuddly in spite of their huge size. In Tsavo East and Tsavo West National Parks, groups are bigger in the rainy season and in areas with open vegetation. [66], During the 20th century, the African bush elephant population was severely decimated. Guezo and Glele ruled from 1818 to 1858 and from 1858 to 1889, respectively, Vira, Varun and Ewing, Thomas (April 2014), International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, West African Elephant Memorandum of Understanding, Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, "Analytical Notices of Books. [15] They are all considered synonymous with the African bush elephant.[1]. The dental alveoli of the fifth molars are visible by the age of 10–11 years. "Age, musth, and paternity success in wild male African elephants, "The exploitation of elephants for the ivory trade: an historical perspective", "How many elephants are killed for the ivory trade? Their tips bear a conical layer of enamel that is usually worn off when the elephant is five years old. The last major populations are present in Gabon and the Republic of Congo. How to say elephant in Afrikaans. [31] They live on plains and in mountains up to about 15,000 feet (5,000 m). Adults can consume up to 150 kg (330 lb) per day. There are two subspecies of African elephants—the Savanna (or bush) elephant and the Forest elephant. The Louisville Zoo is a 134-acre large zoo situated in Louisville, Kentucky. Its sturdy tusks are curved out and point forward. 60 to 70 years. Once they choose their mating partners, they stay away from other bulls that are threatened and chased away by the favoured bull. Large ears help to reduce body heat; flapping them creates air currents and exposes large blood vessels on the inner sides to increase heat loss during hot weather. The zoo also has an elephant exhibit, so we’ve recommended a name you can take inspiration from. Decrease of suitable habitat was the major cause for the decline of elephant populations until the 1950s. Well organized networks facilitated smuggling the ivory through Sudan. They attacked and fed on elephants when smaller prey species were scarce. Most of the ivory was smuggled through East African countries. The newborn calf struggled to its feet within 30 minutes and walked 20 minutes later. Each family unit is led by an older cow known as the matriarch. [20] Females are kept with other females, in groups, while males tend to be separated from their mothers at a young age, and are kept apart. Post sexual maturity, males begin to experience musth, a physical and behavioral condition that is characterized by elevated testosterone, aggression and more sexual activity. [56], In Botswana's Chobe National Park, subadult elephants are preyed upon by lions. [1], A genetic study based on mitogenomic analysis revealed that the African and Asian elephant genetically diverged about 7.6 million years ago. Gene flow between the two species however, might have occurred after the split. [46] They are in estrus for 2–6 days. Talking Elephant! [4] This database includes results from aerial surveys, dung counts, interviews with local people and data on poaching. Hunting African elephants for the ivory trade accelerated the decline from the 1970s onwards. Pet elephant name generator . Loxodonte was latinized to Loxodonta … Poaching, intentional poisoning and anthrax were excluded as potential causes. [71] This name refers to the lozenge-shaped enamel of the molar teeth, which differs significantly from the shape of the Asian elephant's molar enamel.[5]. [10][11][12][13][14], In 1907, Richard Lydekker proposed six African elephant subspecies based on the different sizes and shapes of their ears. Its diet consists mainly of grasses, creepers and herbs. Because of this muscular structure, the trunk is so strong that elephants can use it for lifting about 3% of their own body weight. African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)", "Elephant: The Animal and Its Ivory in African Culture", "Elephant Figure | Fon peoples | The Met", "Elephant caves" of Mt Elgon National Park, EIA 25 yrs investigating the ivory trade, reports etc,, National symbols of the Central African Republic, National symbols of the Republic of the Congo, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from ARKive, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 16:39. Elephant mating rituals include the gentle entwining of trunks. [48], African bush elephants mate during the rainy season. As a result of the trade ban, African elephant populations recovered in Southern African range countries. Large populations of elephants are confined to well-protected areas. [60] African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana) African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) African elephants typically live in herds of 3 to 25 elephants. They are therefore considered distinct species. Captive-born calves weigh between 100 and 120 kg (220 and 260 lb) at birth and gain about 0.5 kg (1.1 lb) weight per day. In 1997, Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe placed it on Appendix II. Up to 4 meters (13 feet) Life span. [2], In 1986, the African Elephant Database was initiated with the aim to collate and update information on distribution and status of elephant populations in Africa. [29] It is the third largest terrestrial animal. By 2014 it was estimated that only 50,000 elephants remained in Central Africa. [51][52] Musth also serves a purpose of calling attention to the females that they are of good quality, and it cannot be mimicked as certain calls or noises may be. 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